What Is Chickun Guinea Disease? Is There Any Medicine for It ? What Is the Cause of This?

Question by doubter: What is Chickun Guinea disease? Is there any medicine for it ? What is the cause of this?
It is spread in the state of Kerala in India.

Best answer:

Answer by Bartimaeus
Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from the Aedes aegypti mosquito, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes Albopictus (Tiger mosquito). This was the cause of the actual plague in the Indian Ocean and a threat to the Mediterranean coast at present, requiring urgent meetings of health officials of France, Italy and Spain, but nothing seems to be moving that way.

The name is derived from the Makonde word meaning “that which bends up” in reference to the stooped posture developed as a result of the arthritic symptoms of the disease. The disease was first described by Marion Robinson[1] and W.H.R. Lumsden[2] in 1955, following an outbreak on the Makonde Plateau, along the border between Tanganyika and Mozambique, in 1952. Chikungunya is closely related to O’nyong’nyong virus[3].

Chikungunya is generally not fatal. However, in 2005-2006, 200 deaths have been associated with chikungunya on Réunion island and a widespread outbreak in Southern India (especially in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka Kerala and Andhra Pradesh). As of July 2006, Tamil Nadu reportedly had the largest number of cases, specifically centered around the southern districts of Madurai and Tirunelveli. The number of reported cases also registered a great increase in the districts of Salem, Chennai and Chengalpattu. As of September 2006, after the flood and heavy rains in Rajasthan in August 2006, India, thousands cases been detected in Rajasamand, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Chittorgarh district. However surprisingly there is no mention of all these in media or by Government.
The symptoms of Chikungunya (also called as Chicken Guinea) include fever which can reach 39°C, (102.2 °F) a petechial or maculopapular rash usually involving the limbs and trunk, and arthralgia or arthritis affecting multiple joints which can be debilitating. The symptoms could also include headache, conjunctival infection and slight photophobia. In the present epidemic in the state of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu India, high fever and crippling joint pain are the prevalent complaint. Fever typically last for two days and abruptly comes down. However, other symptoms, namely joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an extreme degree of prostration lasts for a variable period, usually for about 5 to 7 days.

Dermatological manifestations observed in a recent outbreak of Chikungunya fever in Southern India and Western India (Surat)(Western India reported by Dr. Buddhadev) includes the following:

* Maculopapular rash
* Nasal blotchy erythema
* Freckle-like pigmentation over centro-facial area
* Flagellate pigmentation on face and extremities
* Lichenoid eruption and hyperpigmentation in photodistributed areas
* Multiple aphthous-like ulcers over scrotum, crural areas and axilla.
* Lympoedema in acral distribution (bilateral /unilateral)
* Multiple ecchymotic spots (Children)
* Vesiculobullous lesions (infants)
* Subungual hemorrhage
* Photo Urticaria
* Acral Urticaria

There is no specific treatment for Chikungunya. Vaccine trials were carried out in 2000, but funding for the project was discontinued and there is no vaccine currently available. A serological test for Chikungunya is available from the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Chloroquine is gaining ground as a possible treatment for the symptoms associated with Chikungunya and as an antiviral agent to combat the Chikungunya virus. According to the University of Malaya, “In unresolved arthritis refractory to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chloroquine phosphate (250 mg/day) has given promising results.” [1] Research by Italian scientist, Andrea Savarino, and his colleagues in addition a French government press release in March 2006 [2] have added more credence to the claim that chloroquine may be effective in treating Chikungunya.

Infected persons should limit further exposure to mosquito bites, stay indoors and under a mosquito net. Further, “supportive care with rest is indicated during the acute joint symptoms. Movement and mild exercise tend to improve stiffness and morning arthralgia, but heavy exercise may exacerbate rheumatic symptoms.” [3]

The most effective means of prevention are those that protect against any contact with the disease-carrying mosquitos. These include the use of insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, wearing long sleeves and pants, and secure screens on windows and doors. It’s also important to empty standing water where mosquitoes breed

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